Skip to main content


Dec. 16, 2019: New findings published today in Nature Communications show that the Zika virus epidemic in Latin America likely suppressed the incidence of dengue in subsequent years to aberrantly low levels. Then, dengue came roaring back.


When the Zika epidemic burned through the Americas in 2015, it was transmitted in the same areas where dengue virus was already endemic. This was not unexpected, as both viruses are genetically and antigenically similar, and they also share the same mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

But what was surprising was how quickly dengue virus faded into the background in the immediate years following the Zika outbreak. New findings from researchers at the University of Florida’s Emerging Pathogens Institute and UF’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Department of Biology, describes how dengue was likely suppressed to abnormally low levels in Latin America in the years following the Zika epidemic. Their work explains a possible mechanism for how dengue then came roaring back in 2019.

The study, which published today in Nature Communications, was led by Rebecca Borchering while she was a postdoctoral researcher in biology at UF. It was conducted by multiple members of the Infectious Disease Dynamics lab which is led by the study’s senior author, Derek Cummings, who is a UF biology professor.

The researchers suspected that something about the immune response to Zika offered cross-protection against subsequent dengue infection. Prior work conducted by Cummings and collaborators, which published in Science, showed that individuals with dengue immunity were partially protected from the new Zika virus.

“In certain parts of Brazil, 60 to 70 percent of the population was infected with Zika within four or five months in 2015,” Borchering says. “The attack rate was extremely high. That was followed by reports in 2017 that Brazil was experiencing a very low incidence of dengue. We decided to test this more rigorously, to see if there was a relationship between Zika infection and subsequent dengue infections.”

Specifically, Cummings wondered, What if being infected with Zika offered immunity against dengue for a year or two? Temporary immunity is observed between dengue viruses so it would make sense that infection with the similar Zika virus might create the same temporary protection.

Using publicly available population-level data stretching from 1999-2017 for Brazil and from 2007-2017 for Colombia, Borchering and colleagues assembled models of dengue incidence. They used historic incidence rates of dengue to build models of dengue incidence and compare incidence in the years during and after the Zika outbreak to those before.

Borchering, now a postdoctoral research associate in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia, says their first major finding was to establish that statistically, 2017 was an aberrantly low year for dengue in Brazil and Colombia.

Following the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016, Brazil saw 252,054 dengue cases in 2017 and 265,930 in 2018. In strong contrast, 1.6 million cases were reported in 2015.

“Dengue naturally has cycles of high and low incidence years,” Borchering says. “But even given these cycles, the observed dengue incidence was statistically very different from what you would expect given past historic data.”

When there are low amounts of dengue in a population, that means immunity is not being produced, Cummings says. “It tends to mean that in future time periods, you will have more dengue,” he adds. “There is a feedback in the system that immunity suppresses further transmission, and if you have not had a lot of immunity accumulating in the past few years, then you might be waiting for a pretty sizeable outbreak.”

To test whether immunity produced in response to Zika infections that temporarily protects individuals from dengue could explain the decline in dengue seen after the Zika outbreak, the group built simulations of dengue and Zika transmission. They examined a wide range of simulations with multiple assumptions of interactions between dengue and Zika.


“We found that these low numbers of dengue incidence in 2017 and 2018 were best explained by the simulations that had varying levels of cross-immunity built into them,” says Angkana Huang, a UF doctoral student in biology who also worked on the study. “Which supports the line of thinking that cross-immunity from Zika infections works to suppress dengue transmission in the years following a Zika outbreak.”

The simulations also suggested that periods of reduced dengue could be followed by very large epidemics of dengue, once cross-protection waned and dengue resurged. This finding of the models has unfortunately been seen in real life; many countries of the Americas have experienced record numbers of dengue cases in 2019 including 1.9 million cases reported from Brazil.

There are some limitations to the data, Borchering cautioned. “Many early Zika cases may have been misdiagnosed as dengue, due to shared symptoms, or were not recorded, because it took time to identify that Zika virus was circulating and to establish reporting protocols,” Borchering says. Second, climatological factors and changes in surveillance may affect dengue incidence and could contribute to changes seen in the last few years.

Cummings says that research is needed at the level of individuals to see how Zika and dengue immunity may affect each other, and whether having had Zika was predictive of who has a dengue infection. He expects that dengue will begin to settle back down to normal after this year, as the perturbation of Zika entering the Americas as a novel pathogen settles down.

“The big question now is, when will Zika come back?” Cummings says. “Because it almost certainly will. What we don’t know is how long Zika immunity excludes new Zika outbreaks.”

EPI Explainer: The Four Faces of Dengue

Dengue virus has four different serotypes. Becoming infected with one serotype is thought to confer life-long, or at least long-lasting, immunity against that particular type. It also confers temporary immunity against the three other serotypes. However, after a few years, people are at increased risk of becoming severely ill if they become infected with a different serotype after their initial infection. Because Zika is a genetically similar virus to dengue, many researchers have hypothesized that immunity to Zika virus may follow a similar pattern to dengue and may confer temporary immunity to dengue infection for a year or two; but it may also possibly place people at risk after that time.


The work was conducted by researchers at UF (Rebecca Borchering, Angkana Huang, Diana Rojas, Leah Katzelnick, Silvio Martinez, Greg King, Stephanie Cinkovich and Derek Cummings), Johns Hopkins University  (Luis Mier-y-Teran-Romero, Justin Lessler), and the University of California-San Francisco (Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer).

Creator Credits

Written by DeLene Beeland

Top photo: This is a digitally colorized transmission electron microscopic image of Zika virus, which is a member of the family, Flaviviridae. Virus particles, colored blue, are 40nm in diameter, with an outer envelope, and an inner dense coreand credits here

Chart: Figure 11 from the published paper, courtesy of the authors, shows the different assumptions programmed into various simulations. Panels I-L best match the "trough" in observed dengue cases following the Zika epidemic, when cross-immunity may have temporarily provided an unusually large degree of protection against dengue.


Read More

Read Derek Cummings, Ph.D. bio here.

Read Impacts of Zika emergence in Latin America on endemic dengue transmission here (open access).


翁熄性放纵手机在线 福利导航 最新2019香蕉在线观看 www 5 app www 5 app 火影忍者全集免费观看土豆 午夜福利合集757第12集 99精品 在线观看污视频app免费 强奸空姐 妈妈的朋友5 d2天堂官网视频在线观看 aff91官方 日本善良的锼子 去何地电影 岳两女共夫 韩国艺能圈悲参42全集 在线草莓 小小影视网在线观看免费 久久是免费只精品热9 3atv f2抖音,富二代,就这么嗨 一本到 茄子视频懂你更多 年轻人免费 富二代f2抖音app污版抖音app污免费 粉嫩小又紧水又多视频 97韩剧网手机版高清 暖暖高清视频在线观看中国 四虎影视最新免费观看 图片 自拍 清纯 唯美 亚洲 老司机啪嗒啪嗒 班上的男生 我胸和下面而且还用手机拍我下面 中国女人province 粉视频 某猫指的是什么软件 操操日 男女性高爱潮100免费视频 xrk.向日葵app官网下载安装 芭比视频app免费 班上的男生 我胸视频 免费青年同性视频男twink 人体最最大胆免费视频 薰衣草在线观看免费视频播放 苍井老师 韩国艺能圈悲参42全集 麻豆传媒视频在线 一开始就肉的军旅小说 NARUTOPIXXX福利网 食色短视频app免费下载污污 啊~水太多了视频 aff91官方 抖阴 md.pud麻豆aPP传媒视频 WC女旱厕偷窥免费观看 秋葵视频在线观看 菠萝蜜视频污 美国一级片 我早就想在这里要你了 污app软件免费观看视频 fulao2官方下载安卓免费 MAYA您要浏览 多多屋 向日葵app最新下载网址 羞羞漫画网页登录免费入口 橙子在线官网 最新2019香蕉在线观看 私人拍摄 蜜桔视频下载ios 多人互换当面做视频中国 免费yahoo日本 2020破解大秀盒子 最新s8视频 和审审在一起的日子韩国 短篇合篇500篇视频 最新2019香蕉在线观看 宝贝你的下面嫩真紧np 柠檬视频namv.21 富二代APP抖音 免费公憩林 麻豆视频全集播放 99久久无码热高清精品 黄大拿 磁力天堂中文 年轻的母亲4 老司机ae湿地入口 麻豆传媒视频在线 一进一出抽搐gif天天视频免费 三级A片 五月丁香色播永久网站 榴莲视频下载安装 日本毛片 张柏芝门手机在线观看 成香蕉视频人app污 丝瓜影音 班里男生 我胸视频 丝瓜视频下载官网 中国人电影 向日葵视频在线观看 食色抖音 俄罗斯13一14处出血视频 SWAG弯弯 ady映画 磁力天堂中文 银杏直播 《性船》完整版高清在线观看 老司机福利在视频e85在线观看 台湾AV 食色app下载 国模夏琳精彩炮战全图 哪个直播平台可以看大秀的啊 野花视频论坛 芒果app激情视频 蜜柚视频污的 丝瓜视频在线观看无限播放 AV视频 善良的小峓子在线观看 激情五月 md1.pud 麻豆传媒在线观看 絲瓜視線下載 私人拍摄 秋葵高清APP下载 爸,我坚持不住了 d2视频下载二维码 老头霸占人妻中文字幕 菠萝视频app下载 《性船》完整版高清在线观看 麻豆md0020 絲瓜視線下載 丝瓜视频破解版无限看片安卓版app 两个人的视频全免费观看 WC女旱厕偷窥免费观看 橙子在线官网 日本善良的锼子 老司机ae湿地入口 国产吧 麻豆传媒下载 2020年国产免费视频 乳交片 男人的j放到女人j免费视频 麻豆视频全集播放 泡泡影院 年轻的母亲5电视剧在线观看免费完整版 蘑菇视频app高清下载 九九网 香蕉app免费下载 健身教练漫画完整版免费贤秀阅读在线观看 向日葵免费视频app在线观看 av按摩系列高清无码 试看做受三十分钟 91香蕉视频污版ios大全 交换配乱婬洗澡了 亚洲免费国产午夜视频 91香蕉APP 72966bcon樱桃直播 做污污的事情视频 骑士影院 宝贝再快一点别停视频 把车开到没人的地方做 亚洲色,图偷,拍自、拍 皮猴宝盒破解版最新版5.0 小草在线视频观看免费观看 被窝影院午夜看片爽爽 国产日韩欧美高清免费视频 菠萝蜜是免费观看在线观看 YY6080手机伦理 韩国三级片 鸣无尽 87电影网电在线观看 katsumi大战35cm黑人 小v视频app视频 小v视频app视频 俄罗斯14一18处交视频 日久精品不卡一区二区 赌神2在线观看 国语高清版 草莓app视频ios污下载 swag麋鹿圣诞礼物突然 火影忍者全集免费观看土豆 人交獸AV专区 泡泡影院 clsq最新2019免费地址一二三 72966bcon樱桃直播 免费任你躁国语自产热线 亚洲学生专区